narative text, descriptive, recount, procedure, and report text

The narrative text is telling of a story or an account of a sequence of events. One of the four traditional forms of composition (along with description, exposition, and persuasion). Narration differs from exposition, which can also relate a sequence of events, in that narration need not be factual and may be written from the perspective of a character in the text. Narrative is a text focusing specific participants which tells an interesting story. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain or amuse the readers.

1. Orientation : Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place.
2. Complication : Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with.
3. Resolution : Showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse.
Language Features of Narrative Text
1. Using processes verbs.
2. Using temporal conjunction.
3. Using simple Past Tense.

Procedure text is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. It explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps. This text uses simple present tense, often imperative sentences. It also uses the temporal conjunction such as first, second, then, next, finally, etc.
The Generic Structures of Procedure Text
1. Goal/aim ( or title).
2. Materials (not required for all procedural texts).
3. Steps (the actions that must be taken).
Language Features of Procedure Text
1. Use of imperatives (e.g.: cut, don’t mix).
2. Use of action Verbs (e.g. : turn, put, mix).
3. Use of connectives (e.g. : first, then, finally, …).
4. Use of adverbial phrases (e.g. : for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top).

Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.

The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
1. Identification : Identifying the phenomenon to be described.
2. Description : Describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.
The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
1. Using attributive and identifying process.
2. Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
3. Using simple present tense

Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis.

The Generic Structure of Report Text
1. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general.
2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials.
Language Feature of Report Text
1. Introducing group or general aspect.
2. Using conditional logical connection; when, so, etc.
3. Using simple present tense

Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative.

The Generic Structure of Recount Text
1. Orientation : Introducing the participants, place and time.
2. Events : Describing series of event that happened in the past.
3. Reorientation : It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story.
Language Feature of Recount Text
1. Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc.
2. Using chronological connection; then, first, etc.
3. Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc.
4. Using action verb; look, go, change, etc.
5. Using simple past tense.

IX – B


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